demonstrate this mix of commercial and military technologies. They are big data analytics, robotics and autonomy, unmanned air vehicles in the air and sea and biotechnology. We are going to see enormous opportunities for novel cures and the ability to address genetic illnesses that have trou- bled mankind for decades. I don’t know what the military implications of it are yet, but I think it’s important to keep an eye on it. There’s enormous technological change happening across space and for each of these areas there’s key technology to be driven by government in the national security sector and commercial sector. It’s the convergence of those two that is the most interesting. CompTIA: What do you think that the 21st century workforce is going to look like? WELBY: We are seeing several changes in the way people think about entering the technical workforce today. The notion of a career and a gold watch at the end of it is not what inspires many young people to think about a technical career. They’re much more entrepreneurial. They’re look- ing for ways that they can bring their talents to bear to create impact. They have high expectations about having multiple experiences over the course of a career and finding new roles over that period. So, I think that changes need to be made in the way we think about recruiting, retention and train- ing. There should be the expectation that folks hired will be refreshing their technical skills and growing those skills over their entire lifetime. We need to think differently about how we change the nature of our technical conversations to respond to that. Critical for our 21st century workforce is the fact that there’s an enormous part of our Amer- ican population—and a large part of the global population—not participating in the technical professions. Women and minorities are underrep- resented. We need to be increasingly focused on preparing folks for technical careers, recruiting diverse backgrounds, ages and populations into technical careers and ensuring that our future technical workforces represent the diversity of ideas, history and experience that our society reflects. CompTIA: What technologies do you think are going to drive innovation for that 21st century workforce? WELBY: Software is a critical component to every- thing we do. We need to make sure that young peo- ple get appropriate programming exposure as part of their K-12 education. Increasingly, we are going to see a change from thinking about hardware and software to thinking about systems. The difference between hardware and software is going to shrink; we will be programming hardware and assembling software. It will require us to re-think the way we train and educate and grow our future workforce. CompTIA: Why is a highly skilled workforce essential to the sustainment of our nation’s pre- eminence in space, national security and global competitiveness? WELBY: It’s the thing I worry about the most and it keeps me awake at night. Without the highly skilled and capable workforce, without the talent to drive the American engine, we will find our- selves challenged in a globally competitive envi- ronment. We are in a different world from where we were a few decades ago. The top universities and technical universities were all located here in the U.S. Technical talent from all around the world came here, but over the last few decades those folks have gone home, and so, increasingly, technical talents and capabilities are a globalized resource. We must move faster and put a much greater focus on ensuring our talent is here to help ensure our competitiveness in the future. CompTIA: How do you see CompTIA’s Space Enter- prise Council facilitating that necessity? WELBY: CompTIA’s Space Enterprise Council is a place in which government and industry can come together to look more broadly at what’s happening across the private sector and public space sector. The most interesting things happening in the space domain aren’t quite visible yet. As people think about these new constellations and the cost of space launches, it’s going to change industry in very interesting ways. It may also create new problems that might have to be addressed. It’s an enormously exciting time in space, and CompTIA’s Space Enterprise Council provides a great forum and brings people from across enterprises with different perspectives to share ideas. Through its advocacy and education efforts, CompTIA’s Space Enterprise Council is articulating to policymakers some of these vital interests and needs that will enhance our economic prosperity and national se- curity. In addition, CompTIA’s unparalleled range of programs foster workforce skills development and generate critical knowledge and insight—building the foundation for technology’s future.